Answer: A.PJ. Abdul Kalam tells us that his family was a Tamil middle class family from Rameshwaram. His father Jainulabdeen was not much educated, wasn’t rich but was generous, wise, simple man
but very strict and severe. His mother Ashiamma was a generous lady, and used to feed unlimited numbers of people in their home. Kalam’s family respected all religions. They took part in Hindu festivals. His mother and grandmother told him stories from Ramayana. They always showered their love on their children and never forced their thoughts on them.
Answer: Kalam used to wear a cap and Ramanandha Sastry wore a sacred thread which marked him to be a Brahmin. When the new teacher came he could not tolerate a Hindu priest’s son sitting with a Muslim boy. He ordered Kalam to go and sit on the back bench. This made Ramanandha sad. Abdul started to sit in the last row but it left a bad impression on Abdul. Both the kids narrated the incident to their parents. As a result the teacher was rebuked and reprimanded for spreading communalism and hatred among children.
Answer: Kalam was only 8 years old when the second world war broke out in 1939. Then there was a great demand for tamarind seeds. Abdul used to collect those seeds and sell them in the market. His cousin Shamsuddin distributed newspapers. The train would not stop at Rameshwaram and the bundles of newspapers were thrown from the running train. Abdul was employed by his cousin to collect them. This way he earned his first wages. He felt very proud on earning his first wage.
System means system of discrimination on the basis of religion. The system includes the narrow-mindedness and poison of social inequality and communal intolerance. The Brahmins did not allow Muslims to enter their kitchen. The science teacher – a rebel by nature, invited Kalam to his home and proved that if one is determined to face problems and change the system, he will definitely succeed. Though, such indifferences come in everybody’s life but a person should have a broader outlook and overcome the obstacles.
Answer: The Science teacher, Siva Subramaniam Iyer, wanted to break the social barriers between the Hindus and the Muslims. He wanted Kalam to be very highly educated as he recognized his intelligence. One day, he invited him over to a meal. His orthodox wife was totally horrified at the idea of a Muslim boy dining in her ritually pure kitchen. He did not mind anything said by his very conservative wife. He rather served the food to Abdul by his own hands. He also sat with him and dined together as well as invited him over again for another meal the coming weekend. Thus, this shows that he was a friend of Abdul Kalam even though Kalam was a Muslim and he himself was an orthodox Brahmin.
Answer: A.P.J. Abdul Kalam is one of the finest scientists in our country and was also our eleventh President. From his autobiography “Wings of Fire” it is amply clear that lessons learnt in our childhood not only shape our personality but also decide the kind of person we become. He learnt the lessons of religious tolerance, honesty and self-discipline early in his life. These qualities stayed with him throughout his life and have helped to make him one of the finest President of our country with so many diverse cultures.
Answer: Abdul Kalam’s house was on the Mosque Street in Rameswaram.
Answer: Dinamani is the name of a newspaper. Abdul Kalam attempts to trace the Second World War’s news in the headlines of this newspaper.
Answer: Ramanadha Sastry, Aravindan and Sivaprakasan were his school friends. Ramanadha Sastry became a priest of the Rameswaram temple. Aravindan went into the business of arranging transport for visiting pilgrims. Sivaprakasan became a catering contractor for the Southern Railways.
Answer: Abdul Kalam earned his first wages by distributing newspapers.
Answer: Yes, he earned money before also. He used to collect the tamarind seeds and sell them to a provision shop on the Mosque Street. A day’s collection would fetch him the princely sum of one anna.
Answer: 1.The author describes his father as a wise and generous person. He felt happy when he helped others. He did not have much formal education and riches. He was a man of confidence and great wisdom. He avoided inessential comforts and luxuries.
2.His mother was a noble and kind- hearted woman. She used to feed a large number of people. She had all the attributes of a typical Indian mother.
3.I was born into a middle-class Tamil family. I was a short boy with rather undistinguished looks, born to tall and handsome parents. I studied physics and aerospace engineering and became a scientist.
Answer: The author inherited humility and benevolence from his parents. He learnt lessons in honesty and integrity from his parents. He was self-disciplined because of his parents’ exemplary life.
Answer: 1. The author talks about the people who belong to various castes and follow various religious preachings. Yes, these groups were easily identifiable. Their dressing, traditions, culture and rituals were different.
2. They did share their personal experiences and friendships. Lakshmana Sastry summoned the teacher who separated the author and his friend in the class and told him that he should not spread the poison of social inequality and communal intolerance in the minds of innocent children.
3. The school teacher encouraged communal differences and Lakshmana Sastry and Sivasubramania Iyer discouraged this malpractice.
4. The influential people can do both the things. A teacher has the ability to bridge communal differences and can play with sentiments of the innocent and ignorant people. This is what the new teacher did. But the Science teacher Sivasubramania Iyer changed his wife’s attitude and showed her the right path.
Answer: 1.Abdul Kalam wanted to leave Rameswaram to study at the district headquarters in Ramanathapuram.
2.His father said that he knew he had to go away to grow. He gave the example of a seagull and said that a seagull flies across the sun alone and without a nest.
3.He spoke these words because he intended to hone his skills. He knew the harsh reality of life that children may have to live far from their parents to make their career and earn their livelihood. So he showed his wisdom and intelligence in uttering these words.
Answer: The sentences in the text where these words occur are the following:
. . . a sudden demand for tamarind seeds erupted in the market.
. . . I can still feel the surge of pride in earning my own money for the first time.
. . . I would later attempt to trace in the deadlines in Dinamani.
. . . a short boy with rather undistinguished looks, born to tall and handsome parents.
The first casualty came in the form of the suspension of the train halt at Rameswaram Station.
Look these words up in a dictionary which gives examples of how they are used.
Answer: 1. An earthquake can erupt. Emotions can erupt. Anger can erupt.
Example: An earthquake erupted in Sicily last night.
Surge means a sudden powerful forward or upward movement. A wave surges. A crowd surges. A storm surges.
Example: Birds search for fish when waves surge towards the shore.
2. ‘Trace’ means to find out, to copy, to draw an outline, etc. ‘Finding out’ is the closest meaning to ‘trace’ in the text.
3. I can’t find the word ‘undistinguished’ in my dictionary because it is not the root word. It is there under the word ‘distinguished’ because ‘undistinguished’ is opposite to ‘distinguished’. It means: not specific, not prominent, not distinct, etc.
Answer: — inadequate
Answer: In yesterday’s competition the prizes were given away by the Principal.
Answer: In spite of financial difficulties, the labourers were paid on time.
Answer: On Republic Day, vehicles were not allowed beyond this point.
Answer: Second-hand books are bought and sold on the pavement every Saturday.
Answer: Elections to the Lok Sabha are held every five years.
Answer: Our National Anthem has been composed by Rabindranath Tagore.
Answer: How Helmets Came To Be Used in Cricket
Nari Contractor was the Captain and an opening batsman for India in the 1960s. The Indian cricket team went on a tour to the West Indies in 1962. In a match against Barbados in Bridgetown Nari Contractor was seriously injured and collapsed. In those days helmets were not worn. Contractor was hit on the head by a bouncer from Charlie Griffith. Contractor’s skull was fractured. The entire team was deeply concerned. The West Indies players were worried. Contractor was rushed to hospital. He was accompanied by Frank Worrell, the Captain of the West Indies Team. Blood was donated by the West Indies players. Thanks to the timely help, Contractor was saved. Nowadays helmets are routinely used against fast bowlers.
Answer: Oil From Seeds
Vegetable oils are made from seeds and fruits of many plants growing all over the world from tiny sesame seeds to big, juicy coconuts. Oil is produced from cotton seeds, groundnuts, soya beans and sunflower seeds. Olive oil is used for cooking, salad dressing, etc. Olives are shaken from the trees and gathered up, usually by hand. The olives are grounded to a thick paste which is spread onto special mats. Then the mats are layered up on the pressing machine which will gently squeeze them to produce olive oil.
Answer: The people of Rameswaram in 1940s were orthodox and tolerant. It is mentioned in the story that every child is bom into a specific socio-economic and emotional environment and trained in certain ways by figures of authority. The people of Rameswaram were not ready to allow anybody to instigate their children on the basis of communal intolerance. They were all religious people and did not like to enjoy the luxuries of life. They had pucca houses made of limestone and brick. They used to avoid all inessential comforts and were emotionally attached to the members of their family.
Answer: 1.The annual event held in Rameshwaram was Shri Sita Rama Kalyanam Ceremony.
2.The boats carried the idols of the Lord in the middle of the pond on the site of the marriage (or ceremony or function).
Answer: 1. The speaker’s family used to help in Shri Sita Rama Kalyanam Ceremony by arranging boats with a special platform for carrying idols.
2. The passage shows that the speaker’s family is a truly secular family which respected other religions also.
Answer: 1.The strong sense of conviction that Lakshmana Sastry conveyed brought about a change in the teacher.
2.The speaker lived in a society which was truly secular.
Answer: 1. The teacher’s wife believed in the segregation of different people. She did not want APJ Kalam to enter her kitchen and serve food. She as a result hid behind kitchen door and saw everything.
2. The narrator felt hesitant to eat food with a Hindu family because he felt he was not welcomed in the family.
3. Confronted One day, he invited me to his home for a meal. His wife was horrified at the idea of a Muslim boy being invited to dine in her ritually pure kitchen. She refused to serve me in her kitchen.
1. “He” is Sivasubramania Iyer, and “me” is Abdul Kalam.
2. His wife was horrified at the idea of serving food to a Muslim boy in her Kitchen.
Answer: A.P.J. Abdul Kalam called his childhood a secure one because he had loving and caring parents.-He had all necessary things which included food, clothes, medicine, etc.
Answer: Yes, he deserved the treatment meted out to him. He was spreading the poison of communal intolerance among the young minds which was a serious crime. If a teacher indulges in such a mean act he deserves no sympathy.
Answer: Though his science teacher was an orthodox Hindu, he broke the social barriers, and mixed with other religions and commjmities. He invited Abdul home and served him meals and even sat and ate with him. On the contrary, his wife was conservative and refused to serve Abdul.
Answer: Kalam’s cousin was a news agent. Train halt at Rameshwaram station was suspended. So, the newspapers were bundled up and thrown out from a moving train. Kalam helped his cousin to catch the bundles. He was given money for it.
Answer: Abdul Kalam describes his mother by saying that she was an ideal wife and a gentle lady. He learnt from his mother to be gentle and kind. She even used to feed a lot of outsiders every day.
Answer: Abdul Kalam’s family arranged for a boat with a special platform for carrying the idols of Lord Shri Sita Ram from the temple to the marriage sites situated in the middle of a pond called as Rama Tirtha. His parents even told him stories from the Ramayana.
Answer: Abdul Kalam inherited honesty and self discipline from his father and faith in goodness and kindness from his mother. Like his parents even he respected all religions.